субота, 05. октобар 2013.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE




  • The Present Perfect verb phrase contains HAS or HAVE + past participle.
  • It describes a past happening which is related in some way to the present time.

past some time now future
in the past


AFFIRMATIVE:


I / you / we / they /
Noun phrase


HAVE
VE




PAST
PARTICIPLE

He / she / it /
Noun phrase


HAS
S


- My husband has promised to take me to the United States next year.
- I’ve been to Africa and Europe.

QUESTION FORM:


HAVE


I / you / we / they



PAST
PARTICIPLE


HAS


He / she / it…


  • Have you had breakfast? Has the bank opened yet?

NEGATIVE FORM:



I / you / we / they …



HAVEN’T / HAVE NOT





PAST
PARTICIPLE


He / she / it…



HASN’T / HAS NOT


- She hasn’t paid the bill, and they’ve cut off her phone.


HOW TO USE THE PRESENT PERFECT?

When talking about something which began in the past, and has continued up to the present we use the Present Perfect:


Past NOW Future


Main uses of the Present Perfect:
  1. The action began in the past and hasn’t changed (with since, for)
  2. General experience; e.g. what you have done in your life up to now (with ever, never).
  3. Recent events or states (with already, still, yet or just)
  4. Events whose results are still noticeable (with the Present Perfect Progressive or without an adverbial)

Examples:
  1. I have studied English since I started secondary school. I have studied English for a long time. How long have you had this bicycle? – Oh, about two years.
  2. I have visited Rio, but I have never been to Buenos Aires. (never = at no time up to now) Have you ever climbed any mountain? (ever = at any time up to now)
  3. Has our plane landed? – I don’t know. It still hasn’t appeared on the Arrivals board. I haven’t seen it yet. I’ve already checked it. (already occurs mainly in statements, and yet occurs in questions or with negatives.) I’ve just had a delicious meal.
  4. Somebody’s been washing the floor. It’s still wet. Somebody’s borrowed my pen. I can’t find it. Pam isn’t here. She’s gone shopping.

Signal words - adverbs of time
  • ever, never
  • since, for
  • recently, lately
  • already, yet, just
  • this (week, month...), today
If you want to check whether you have understood previous texts, you may try the following exercises

http://www.englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10703&Itemid=464

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