среда, 09. октобар 2013.

CONDITIONALS



Uslovne rečenice

* Koristimo uslovne rečenice kada govorimo o mogućim situacijama i posledicama.

* Obično počinju veznikom `if', ređe sa "whether" ili "unless". Veznici se različito prevode u zavisnosti od toga koji je tip uslovne rečenice.

* Redosled rečenica nije bitan za razumevanje, mada se na početku učenja obično navodi prvo zavisna rečenica (ona koja počinje veznikom) da bi se naglasilo da se odvaja zarezom. 


Zero Conditional: Certainty - za nepobitne činjenice, nešto što je potpuno tačno

The Zero conditional is used for facts that are always true as long as the condition is met.

IF  Condition      Result
IF + Present simple,    present simple

If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.
If I drink coffee, I get a headache.

First Conditional: A real possibility in the future - ono što će se verovatno desiti 

A First Conditional sentence is one connecting two future actions, where one must take place before the second is possible.
IF Condition                         Result
IF + present simple,      will + infinitive (future simple)
If she gets good grades, she will go to university.
(If he gets good grades, he may go to university.)
If I see her, I'll ask her about it.
*if - ako

Second Conditional: Imaginary Present or Unlikely Future - ono što se verovatno neće desiti

The Second Conditional can be used to talk about imaginary present situations, where we are imagining something different from what is really the case. We can also use it to talk about things in the future that are unlikely to happen, as the condition is unlikely to be met.

IF Condition          Possibility
IF +  past simple,  would + infinitive
If I had the time, I would learn Italian. (I don't have the time, so I'm not going to learn Italian.)
If I won the lottery I would travel around the world. (There's a very small chance of winning the lottery, so the trip is unlikely)
We can use other modal verbs in the past tense in the result part of the sentence: should, would or could.
If I had more time, I might learn Spanish.
If I had more time I could learn Hindi.

`Were' is sometimes used instead of `was' in the conditional clause, especially after `I'.
If I were as big as you, I would kill you.
If I weren't so busy, I would do it for you.

You often say `If I were you' when you are giving someone advice.
If I were you, I would take the money.
I should keep out of Bernadette's way if I were you.
*if - kad bih/bi/bismo

Third Conditional: Imaginary Past

The third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened:

IF Condition Result What actually happened
Past Perfect WOULD HAVE + Past Participle

If I had known, I would have helped. (I didn't know and didn't help.)
If I had known, I could have helped.
*if - da sam/si...

1 You use conditional clauses to talk about a situation that might possibly happen and to say what its results might be.

You use `if' to mention events and situations that happen often, that may happen in the future, that could have happened in the past but did not happen, or that are unlikely to happen at all.
If the light comes on, the battery is OK.
I'll call you if I need you.
If I had known, I'd have told you.
If she asked me, I'd help her.

2 When you are talking about something that is generally true or happens often, you use a present or present perfect tense in the main clause and the conditional clause.
If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.
If an advertisement does not tell the truth, the advertiser is committing an offence.
If the baby is crying, it is probably hungry.
If they have lost any money, they report it to me.

3 When you use a conditional clause with a present or present perfect tense, you often use an imperative in the main clause.
Wake me up if you're worried.
If he has finished, ask him to leave quietly.
If you are very early, don't expect them to be ready.

4 When you are talking about something which may possibly happen in the future, you use a present or present perfect tense in the conditional clause, and the simple future in the main clause.
If I marry Sally, we will need the money.
If you are going to France, you will need a visa.
If he has finished the job, he will want his money.

5 When you are talking about something that you think is unlikely to happen, you use the past simple or past continuous in the conditional clause and `would' in the main clause.
If I had enough money, I would buy the car.
If he was coming, he would ring.

6 When you are talking about something which could have happened in the past but which did not actually happen, you use the past perfect in the conditional clause. In the main clause, you use `would have' and a past participle.
If he had realized that, he would have run away.
I wouldn't have been so depressed if I had known how common this feeling is.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


Should' is sometimes used in conditional clauses to express greater uncertainty.
If any visitors should come, I'll say you aren't here.

You can use other modals besides `will', `would' and `would have' in the main clause with their usual meanings.
She might phone me, if she has time.
You could come, if you wanted to.
If he sees you leaving, he may cry.

Note that you can have modals in both clauses: the main clause and the conditional clause.
If he can't come, he will phone.

3 In formal English, if the first verb in a conditional clause is `had', `should', or `were', you can put the verb at the beginning of the clause and omit `if'.

For example, instead of saying `If he should come, I will tell him you are sick', it is possible to say `Should he come, I will tell him you are sick'.
Should ministers decide to hold an inquiry, we would welcome it.
Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions.
Had I known, I would not have done it.

4 When you want to mention an exception to what you are saying, you use a conditional clause beginning with `unless'.
You will fail your exams.
You will fail your exams unless you work harder.

Note that you can often use `if...not' instead of `unless'.
You will fail your exams if you do not work harder.

When you use `unless', you use the same tenses that you use with `if'.
She spends Sundays in the garden unless the weather is awful.
We usually walk, unless we're going shopping.
He will not let you go unless he is forced to do so.
You wouldn't believe it, unless you saw it.

5 `If' and `unless' are not the only ways of beginning conditional clauses. You can also use `as long as', `only if', `provided', `provided that', `providing', `providing that', or `so long as'. These expressions are all used to indicate that one thing only happens or is true if another thing happens or is true.
We were all right as long as we kept our heads down.
I will come only if nothing is said to the press.
She was prepared to come, provided that she could bring her daughter.
Providing they remained at a safe distance, we would be all right.
Detergent cannot harm a fabric, so long as it has been properly dissolved.

To learn more about mixed conditionals, please visit this page.

If you want to find more examples for further practice, please visit this page.

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