четвртак, 17. октобар 2013.

EXPRESSING FUTURE


IZRAŽAVANJE BUDUĆNOSTI

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  • Future simple – will visit
  • Present Simple – visit
  • Present Continuous – am, is, are visiting
  • Be going to – am, is, are going to visit
  • Future Continuous – will be visiting
  • Future Perfect - will have visited
  • is to/are to/ was to

FUTURE SIMPLE
- uopštene informacije o budućnosti
  • We will need the money on the 15th.
  • Will all the family be at the wedding?
  • It will be spring soon.
  • She won’t be here when you come.

- u vremenskim rečenicama - uz when, if, until and as soon as
  • I‘ll wait for you here until you get back.
  • If I’m there tomorrow. I’ll phone you.
  • When it’s ready I’ll give it to you.
  • The present perfect can be used to emphasize the completion of an event.
  • I'll wait here until you have finished.

Prediction
- predictions often preceded by / think, promise, predict, expect, hope, fear or by opinion words like perhaps.
  • I think itll rain tomorrow.
  • Perhaps she'll be late.
  • Tomorrow will be warm with some cloud in the afternoon.
  • Who do you think will win?
  • Liverpool will win the Cup.
  • You’ll never finish that book.


- our beliefs, guesses, knowledge etc.
  • Don’t lend him your car - he’ll crash it. (I know him.)

- the first type of Conditions
  • If you come I’ll give you the book.
  • If you study you’ll learn more
  • If he arrives on time he’ll catch the bus

Near Future & pre-planned
The Present Continuous pre-planned activity that we know especially if we are using a verb that implies “moving from one place to another”
  • He is arriving tonight (I am certain)
  • They are living next Sunday (I know, it has been planned)

Plans and facts
- plans and arrangements which are definite.
  • Sorry, I can't help you, I'm leaving in the morning.

- fixed arrangements, and to ask about social arrangements.
  • Are you doing anything this evening?
  • Did you know Im getting a new job?
  • What are we having for dinner?

- time, date, and / or place when of future personal arrangements and fixed plans.
  • What are you doing this evening?’ ‘I’m washing my hair.’
  • My car’s having a service next week.
  • We’re going to Spain in June.
  • I’m seeing Pete on Tuesday. (There is an arrangement now.)


Plans and facts - The Present Simple - future events which we cannot control, a timetable, or a law.
  • The plane for Paris leaves at 9.45.
  • The Present Simple and Present Perfect can also be used to refer to future time.
  • I‘ll tell you the news when I see you.
  • Call me when you have finished.


Is to / are to/ was to - something is to = should happen - official plans and fixed personal arrangements.
  • The President is to visit Scotland in September.
  • We are to get a wage rise.
  • I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time.

Be going to - to predict what may happen based on what we see.
  • Look out! There's a bus coming! It's going to hit us!
  • Look at these clouds! It's going to rain!
  • I can see you're going to have a baby. When is it due?
  • He is looking up! He is going to fall into the hole.

- instead of the Future Simple in predictions when there is no cause. It seems more colloquial.
  • I'm sure you 're going to enjoy the film.
  • I 'm sure you ‘ll enjoy the film.

- for near future events, the Future Simple / be going to with no change of meaning.



Decisions and firm intentions
Be going to plans, decisions and firm intentions, especially in an informal style.
  • We’re going to get a new car soon. (it’s our decision)
  • I am going to wash my hair (that’s my intention)
  • Will you come to my party? Sorry, I’m going to help Lola (prior plan /arrangement)


  • Be going to is used to describe a present intention.
  • I'm going to fix the television tomorrow.
  • I’m going to be an artist


Quick Decision
The Future simple is used for decisions made at the time of speaking.
  • I know, I'll get him a wallet for his birthday.
  • Don’t worry, I’ll answer the phone!
  • Let me help you, I’ll carry it



Comparing tenses use

We can often use more than one structure to talk about the same future event.
Present forms emphasize present ideas like intention, certainty and plans.
We prefer Future simple when we are not emphasizing present ideas.
Compare:
  • Next year is going to be different (I promise)
  • Next year will be different. (probably)
  • What are you doing next year? (You haven’t told me your plans)
  • What will you do next year ? (do you know?)

Comparing tenses use
In polite enquiries
  • The Future Progressive suggests 'What have you already decided?‘ giving the idea that we are not trying to influence people.
  • Will you be staying in staying in this evening? (just asking about plans)
Be going to presses for a decision
  • Are you going to stay in this evening? (perhaps pressing for a decision)
  • Future simple is used as a request
  • Will you stay in this evening? (request)

The future continuous used to describe a situation in the future at a particular time.
  • This time next week we'll be eating lunch on the plane!
  • This time tomorrow I'll be skiing.
  • At six o’clock tonight we’ll be flying to London

The future continuous used to predict a future state or habit at a particular time in the future.
  • In ten years time I expect I'll be living in London.
  • And I'll probably be cycling to work.
  • Professor Asher will be giving another lecture at the same time next week.
  • I’ll be seeing you one of these days. I expect.

The future perfect looks back from a point in the future and refers to indefinite time up to that point.
  • By the time we get there, the film will have started.
This means that at the future time when we get there, we can say: The film has started.

  • The builder says he’ll have finished the roof by Saturday.
  • The car will soon have done 100.000 miles.


The Future Perfect Continuous – to say how long something will have continued by a certain time.

  • Next Christmas I’ll have been teaching for twenty years.
  • By her fifth birthday she will have been working in the same office.

exercises
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=7229

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