субота, 22. фебруар 2014.

GERUND OR INFINITIVE?


Kako da znate kada da koristite gerund, a kada infinitiv?

Gerund (verb + ing) treba koristiti:
  • posle nekih glagola - I enjoy singing.
  • posle predloga - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving.
  • kao subjekat ili objekat rečenice - Swimming is good exercise.

'to' + infinitive:
  • posle nekih glagola - We decided to leave
  • posle većine prideva - It's difficult to get up early
  • da izrazite nameru - I came to London to study English
Infinitiv bez 'to':
  • posle modalnih glagola - I can meet you at six o'clock
  • posle  'let', 'make' i (ponekad) 'help' - The teacher let us leave early
  • posle nekih glagola koji se vezuju za opažanje
     (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) - I watched her walk away
  • posle izraza sa 'why' - why go out the night before an exam?

Najčešći glagoli posle kojih se upotrebljava gerund:
enjoy I enjoyed living in France
fancy I fancy seeing a film tonight
discuss We discussed going on holiday together
dislike I dislike waiting for buses
finish We've finished preparing for the meeting
mind I don't mind coming early
suggest He suggested staying at the Grand Hotel
recommend They recommended meeting earlier
keep He kept working, although he felt ill
avoid She avoided talking to her boss


Najčešći glagoli posle kojih se upotrebljava 'to' i infinitive:
agree She agreed to give a presentation at the meeting
ask* I asked to leave early / I asked him to leave early
decide We decided to go out for dinner
help* He helped to clean the kitchen / he helped his flatmate to clean the kitchen
plan She plans to buy a new flat next year
hope I hope to pass the exam
learn They are learning to sing
want* I want to come to the party / I want him to come to the party
would like* I would like to see her tonight / I would like you to see her tonight
promise We promised not to be late
*ispred infinitiva ovih glagola se može upotrebiti indirektni objekat.
(posle 'help' može da se upotrebi infinitiv bez 'to' bez promene značenja: 'I helped to carry it' = 'I helped carry it'.)

Upotreba gerunda ili infinitiva MENJA značenje ovih glagola.


Remember + gerund
- upotrebljava se kada se subjekat seća da se nešto desilo u prošlosti. Postoji sećanje koga kao sliku možete videti u mislima.
  • I remember going to the beach when I was a child. (= Sećam se da sam išao na plažu).
  • He remembers closing the door. (= Sećam se da sam zatvorio vrata).

Remember + to + infinitive
- upotrebljava se kada se subjekat seti da nešto treba da uradi (i uradi tek pošto se setio).
  • I remembered to buy milk. (= išao sam kući kada mi je palo na pamet da treba da kupim mleko, pa sam ga kupio).
  • She remembered to send a card to her grandmother.(= bila je na letovanju i setila se da treba da se javi baki, pa joj je poslala razglednicu).

Forget + gerund
- ima suprotno značenje od remember + gerund, kada zaboravite da ste nešto uradili u prošlosti (uradili ste, ali se ne sećate toga).
  • Have we really studied this topic before? I forget reading about it.
  • I told my brother that we'd spent Christmas at Granny's house in 1985, but he'd forgotten going there.

Forget + to + infinitive
- ima suprotno značenje od remember + to + infinitive. Želite ili treba da uradite nešto, ali zaboravite na to (i ne uradite to što treba).
  • I forgot to call my mother. (= želeo sam da pozovem majku, ali kada je trebalo da to učinim, zaboravio sam i uopšte je nisam zvao tog dana).
  • She keeps forgetting to bring his book back.


Try + gerund
- upotrebljava se kada nešto radite samo da biste isprobali. To što pokušavate nije teško, možete da uradite, pokušavate da biste videli kako izgleda ili kakve su posledice toga što radite.
  • I wanted to stop smoking, so I tried using nicotine patches. (= korišćenje nikotinskih flastera je lako, ali sam  želeo da vidim da li će mi pomoći da prestanem da pušim).
  • She tried giving up chocolate, but it didn't help her lose weight. (= bilo joj je lako da se odrekne čokolade. Odrekla se čokolade da vidi da li će joj pomoći da smanji težinu, ali joj nije pomoglo).


Try + to + infinitive
- upotrebljava se kad pokušate da nešto uradite, ali ne uspevate jer je previše teško.
  • I tried to lift the suitcase, but it was too heavy.
  • She tried to catch the bus, but she couldn't run fast enough.


Uočite razliku:
  • I tried giving up chocolate (it was no problem to stop eating chocolate) but it didn't make me feel more healthy.
  • I tried to give up chocolate, but it was too hard. I always ate some when my friends offered it to me.
  • It was too hot in the room. I tried opening the window (it was easy to open the window). It didn't help though, because it was very hot outside too. I tried to open the window, but I couldn't because it was stuck.


Stop + gerund
- prestali ste nešto da radite, bilo zauvek ili samo na neko vreme.
  • I stopped working when I was expecting a baby. (prestala sam da radim dok sam čekala bebu).
  • My grandmother stopped driving when she was 85. (prestala je da vozi kada je napunila 85 godina).
  • My boss came into the room, so I stopped browsing the internet.
  • There was a fire alarm, so I stopped eating and went outside.

Stop + to + infinitive
U ovom slučaju, prekidate nešto da bi ste uradili aktivnost izraženu infinitivom.
  • I stopped to eat lunch. (prestao sam sa onim što sam do tada radio jer sam želeo da ručam).
  • She was shopping and she stopped to get a cup of coffee. (prestala je sa kupovinom jer je želela da popije kafu).
Uočite razliku:
  • I stopped smoking. (ostavio sam pušenje ILI sam u tom trenutku ugasio cigaretu).
  • I stopped to smoke. (prestao sam sa onim što sam radilo/zaustavio sam se u hodu jer sam želeo da zapalim cigaretu).

Regret + gerund
- upotrebljavate kada žalite zbog nečega što ste uradili u prošlosti i želeli biste da niste tako postupili / uradili.
  • I regret going to bed so late. I'm really tired today.
  • She regrets leaving school when she was sixteen. She wishes that she had studied more and then gone to university.

Regret + to + infinitive
- upotrebljavate kada na formalan način nekom saopštavate loše vesti, najčešće uz 'say' ili 'tell' or 'inform'. Slično frazi "sa žaljenjem vas obaveštavamo da..."

1 коментар:

  1. It is crucial information for me because tomorrow I have to take the test on English grammar. I can send you the example of the test http://getessayeditor.com/blog/way-to-use-gerund-in-english

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